Microsoft Office has a wide range of basic formula of Excel that can be used to perform various calculations and operations on data. The MS Excel formula list is quite extensive and can be categorized into different categories such as mathematical, text manipulation, statistical, lookup and reference, date and time, logical, engineering, financial and more.

Excel formulas are constructed using a combination of functions, operators, and cell references. Functions are pre-built formulas that can be used to perform specific calculations. Operators are symbols used to perform mathematical or logical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, or comparison. Cell references are used to specify the location of the data that the formula will operate on.

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## MS Excel Formula List

Excel formulas can be used to perform simple arithmetic calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as more complex calculations involving statistical analysis, financial modelling, and engineering calculations. Additionally, Excel formulas can be used to manipulate text data, perform lookups and references, and work with dates and times.

## Top 10 Basic Formula of Excel

Microsoft Excel is a powerful spreadsheet application that allows users to organize, manipulate, and analyze data. One of the key features of Excel is the ability to create formulas that perform calculations and automate tasks. Check out the Top 10 basic formula of Excel.

**Table of content**

The SUM formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to quickly calculate the total of a range of cells. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the sum.
- Type “=SUM(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Select the range of cells you want to add up. You can either click and drag to select the cells, or manually type in the cell references separated by commas. For example, “=SUM(A1:A5)” adds up the values in cells A1 to A10.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=SUM(A1:A5)`

The sum of the selected cells will now be displayed in the cell you selected in step 1.

You can also use the AutoSum button on the Home tab of the ribbon to quickly add up a range of cells. Simply select the cell where you want the sum to appear, click the AutoSum button, and Excel will automatically select what it thinks is the appropriate range to add up. You can adjust the range as needed by dragging the selection handles.

Additionally, you can use the SUM function with multiple arguments to add up non-contiguous ranges of cells. For example, “=SUM(A1:A5,C1:C5,E1:E5)” adds up the values in cells A1 to A5, C1 to C5, and E1 to E5

The COUNT formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to count the number of cells in a range that contain numerical data. Here’s how to use it:

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- Select the cell where you want to display the count.
- Type “=COUNT(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Select the range of cells you want to count. You can either click and drag to select the cells, or manually type in the cell references separated by commas. For example, “=COUNT(A1:A5)” counts the number of cells in the range A1 to A10 that contain numerical data.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=COUNT(A1:A5)`

The count of the selected cells will now be displayed in the cell you selected in step 1.

You can also use the AutoSum button on the Home tab of the ribbon to quickly count the number of cells in a range that contain numerical data. Simply select the cell where you want the count to appear, click the AutoSum button, and Excel will automatically select what it thinks is the appropriate range to count. You can adjust the range as needed by dragging the selection handles.

Additionally, you can use the COUNT function with multiple arguments to count non-contiguous ranges of cells. For example, “=COUNT(A1:A5,C1:C5,E1:E5)” counts the number of cells in the ranges A1 to A5, C1 to C5, and E1 to E5 that contain numerical data.

The COUNTA formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to count the number of cells in a range that are not blank. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the count.
- Type “=COUNTA(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Select the range of cells you want to count. You can either click and drag to select the cells, or manually type in the cell references separated by commas. For example, “=COUNTA(A1:A5)” counts the number of cells in the range A1 to A10 that are not blank.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=COUNTA(A1:A5)`

The count of the selected cells will now be displayed in the cell you selected in step 1.

The COUNTA formula counts cells that contain any type of data, including text, numbers, logical values, and error values. If you only want to count cells that contain numerical data, use the COUNT formula instead.

The COUNTBLANK formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to count the number of blank cells in a range. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the count.
- Type “=COUNTBLANK(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Select the range of cells you want to count. You can either click and drag to select the cells, or manually type in the cell references separated by commas. For example, “=COUNTBLANK(A1:A5)” counts the number of blank cells in the range A1 to A10.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=COUNTBLANK(A1:A5)`

The COUNTBLANK formula only counts cells that are completely blank. If a cell contains a formula that returns an empty string or a space character, it will not be counted as blank.

The AVERAGE formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to calculate the average (arithmetic mean) of a range of numerical values. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the average.
- Type “=AVERAGE(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Select the range of cells you want to average. You can either click and drag to select the cells, or manually type in the cell references separated by commas. For example, “=AVERAGE(A1:A5)” calculates the average of the values in the range A1 to A10.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=AVERAGE(A1:A5)`

The MIN formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to find the minimum (smallest) value in a range of cells. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the minimum value.
- Type “=MIN(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Select the range of cells you want to search for the minimum value. You can either click and drag to select the cells, or manually type in the cell references separated by commas. For example, “=MIN(A1:A5)” finds the smallest value in the range A1 to A10.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=MIN(A1:A5)`

The minimum value of the selected cells will now be displayed in the cell you selected in step 1.

You can also use the MIN function as part of a larger formula. For example, you might use the MIN function to find the smallest value in a range, and then use that value in a calculation. To do this, simply include the MIN function as one of the arguments in your formula.

The MAX formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to find the maximum (largest) value in a range of cells. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the maximum value.
- Type “=MAX(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Select the range of cells you want to search for the maximum value. You can either click and drag to select the cells, or manually type in the cell references separated by commas. For example, “=MAX(A1:A5)” finds the largest value in the range A1 to A10.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=MAX(A1:A5)`

The maximum value of the selected cells will now be displayed in the cell you selected in step 1.

You can also use the MAX function as part of a larger formula. For example, you might use the MAX function to find the largest value in a range, and then use that value in a calculation. To do this, simply include the MAX function as one of the arguments in your formula.

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The LEN formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to find the number of characters in a text string. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the length of the text string.
- Type “=LEN(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Type in the cell reference or the text string you want to count the characters for. For example, “=LEN(A1)” counts the number of characters in the text string in cell A1.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=LEN(A1)`

The length of the text string will now be displayed in the cell you selected in step 1.

You can also use the LEN formula as part of a larger formula. For example, you might use the LEN formula to count the number of characters in a cell, and then use that value in a calculation. To do this, simply include the LEN function as one of the arguments in your formula.

The TRIM formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to remove leading and trailing spaces from a text string. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the trimmed text string.
- Type “=TRIM(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Type in the cell reference or the text string you want to trim. For example, “=TRIM(A1)” trims the spaces from the text string in cell A1.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=TRIM(A1)`

The trimmed text string will now be displayed in the cell you selected in Step 1.

You can also use the TRIM formula as part of a larger formula. For example, you might use the TRIM formula to remove spaces from a cell, and then use the resulting text string in a lookup or reference formula. To do this, simply include the TRIM function as one of the arguments in your formula.

The IF formula in Microsoft Excel allows you to perform conditional calculations based on a logical test. Here’s how to use it:

- Select the cell where you want to display the result of the IF formula.
- Type “=IF(” (without the quotes) in the formula bar.
- Enter the logical test that you want to perform. This can be a comparison between two values, such as “=A1>B1”, or a function that returns a logical value, such as “=ISNUMBER(A1)”. For example, if you want to test whether the value in cell A1 is greater than 10, you would enter “=IF(A1>10,””Yes””,””No””)”.
- Enter the value or formula that should be displayed if the logical test is true. This can be a value, a formula, or a reference to another cell. For example, if you want to display the text “Yes” if the value in cell A1 is greater than 10, you would enter “=IF(A1>10,””Yes””,B1)”.
- Enter the value or formula that should be displayed if the logical test is false. This can also be a value, a formula, or a reference to another cell. For example, if you want to display the text “No” if the value in cell A1 is not greater than 10, you would enter “=IF(A1>10,””Yes””,””No””)”.
- Close the parentheses and press Enter.

`=IF(A1>10,""Yes"",B1)`

The result of the IF formula will now be displayed in the cell you selected in step 1.

You can also nest IF formulas to create more complex conditional calculations. For example, you might use multiple IF formulas to assign a letter grade based on a student’s test score.

### Other MS Excel Formula List

There are hundreds of MS Excel formula list available, and they can be used to perform a wide range of calculations, including basic arithmetic, statistical analysis, financial modelling, and engineering calculations. Additionally, the basic formula of Excel can be used to manipulate text data, perform lookups and references, and work with dates and times.

- SUMIF: Adds up the values in a range that meet a certain criterion.
- COUNTIF: Counts the number of cells in a range that meet a certain criterion.
- VLOOKUP: Searches for a value in the first column of a table array and returns a value in the same row from a specified column of the table array.
- HLOOKUP: Searches for a value in the first row of a table array and returns a value in the same column from a specified row of the table array.
- INDEX: Returns the value of a cell in a specified row and column of a table array.
- MATCH: Searches for a value in a specified range and returns its position in the range.
- CONCATENATE: Joins two or more strings of text into one string.
- LEFT: Returns the leftmost characters from a string of text.
- RIGHT: Returns the rightmost characters from a string of text.
- MID: Returns a specific number of characters from a string of text, starting at a specified position.
- LEN: Counts the number of characters in a string of text.
- ROUND: Rounds a number to a specified number of decimal places.
- ROUNDUP: Rounds a number up to a specified number of decimal places.
- ROUNDDOWN: Rounds a number down to a specified number of decimal places.
- TODAY: Returns the current date.
- NOW: Returns the current date and time.
- DATE: Returns the date based on year, month, and day values.
- TIME: Returns the time based on hour, minute, and second values.
- EOMONTH: Returns the last day of the month based on a specified number of months from a starting date.
- NETWORKDAYS: Calculates the number of working days between two dates, excluding weekends and holidays.
- PMT: Calculates the monthly payment required to pay off a loan or investment, based on a constant interest rate.
- NPV: Calculates the net present value of an investment, based on a series of future cash flows.
- IRR: Calculates the internal rate of return of an investment, based on a series of future cash flows.
- RAND: Returns a random number between 0 and 1.
- RANK: Returns the rank of a number within a range of numbers.
- PERCENTILE: Calculates the nth percentile of a range of numbers.
- TRIM: Removes extra spaces from a string of text.
- SUBSTITUTE: Replaces a specified text string within a string of text with another text string.
- UPPER: Converts a string of text to all uppercase letters.
- LOWER: Converts a string of text to all lowercase letters.
- PROPER: Capitalizes the first letter of each word in a string of text.
- ISNUMBER: Checks whether a value is a number or not and returns true or false.
- ISBLANK: Checks whether a cell is blank or not and returns true or false.
- CHOOSE: Returns a value from a list of values based on a specified index number.

By learning how to use Excel formulas effectively, users can save time and improve the accuracy of their calculations, making it an essential tool for businesses, researchers, and analysts.

**📌 Things to Remember**

- Any formula should always start with an equal sign. Else, it will throw an error.
- If we enter any text data instead of giving a cell address, we should provide the text data within an inverted comma (“your_data”).
- Before writing the function in a cell, ensure the cell format is general. If another format is selected, then the formula will not work properly.
- Space (_) is always counted as a single character. So, if you are working with blank cells, remember that if a cell has only space, it will not be counted as a blank cell.

#### Frequency Asked Questions

### What are the basic formulas of MS Excel?

The frequently used basic MS Excel formula is Add, Multiple, Auto SUM etc.

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